## Topic outline

• ### General

 Lecturer : Ab Al-Hadi Ab Rahman, Muhammad Arif Abd. RahimZulkifli Md. Yusof Semester : Semester I 2011/2012

Objective

To introduce students to basic techniques in designing and implementing complex digital systems.

Synopsis

This course is a continuation from basic digital electronic course (SEE 1223). It emphasizes on techniques to design, analyze, plan, and implement complex digital systems using programmable logic, with specific focus on programmable logic devices. In order to facilitate learning process, a computer-aided design (CAD) software is used throughout the course. Some practical or almost actual environment problems and solutions are provided.

• ### Topic 1

Chapter 1 : Introduction (1 hour)

Differences between analogue and digital system. Advantages and disadvantages of both systems.

Chapter 2 : Number systems (5 hours)

Decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal number systems. Conversions between number systems.

• ### Topic 2

continue Chapter 2

Binary codes - BCD 8421, Gray, ASCII, ECBDIC. Representation of negative numbers - sign and magnitude, 1’s complement and 2’s complement. Arithmetic operations using 2’s complement representation

• ### Topic 3

Chapter 3 : Logic gates and Boolean Algebra (6 hours)

Basic gates – NOT, Buffer, OR, AND, NAND, NOR, Exclusive-OR and Exclusive NOR. Gate symbols, truth tables and Boolean operations, universal gates. Boolean algebra - Boolean’s and De Morgan’s Theorems.

• ### Topic 4

continue Chapter 3

Minterm, maxterm, canonical (standard) SOP and POS and simplified representations of Boolean functions. Conversion of AND-OR circuits to NAND-NAND and OR-AND to NOR-NOR. De Morgan equivalent circuits.

• ### Topic 5

Chapter 4 : Combinational Logic Circuit Design (6 hours)

Simplification of Boolean functions using Karnaugh map technique for 2 to 4 variables.

• ### Topic 6

continue Chapter 4

• ### Topic 7

Chapter 5 : MSI Circuits (6 hours)

Multiplexers, multiplexer expansion, 74×153 and 74×151 devices. Demultiplexer and decoders, decoder expansion.74×138 and 74×139 devices. Encoder, priority encoder, 74×147 device. BCD-to-7-segment decoder, 74×247 device.

• ### Topic 8

continue Chapter 5

• ### Topic 9

Chapter 6 : Flip-flop (6 hours)

Differences between combinational and sequential circuits. SR latch, Gated SR latch, Gated JK latch.
• ### Topic 10

Chapter 6 (continue)

JK flip-flop, D flip-flop, T flip-flop.74×74 and 74×76 devices. Preset and clear functions..

• ### Topic 11

Chapter 7 : Counters and Shift Registers (6 hours)

Synchronous and asynchronous counters - ripple counter, design of a synchronous counter using D flip-flops. 74×293 and 74×163 devices.

• ### Topic 12

Chapter 7 (continue)

Register - shift registers (SISO, SIPO, PISO, PIPO). Shift register counters (Johnson and Ring), 74×164, 74×165, 74×194, 74×195 devices.

• ### Topic 13

Chapter 8 : Semiconductor Memories (3 hours)

Random-Access Memories (RAMs), Read-Only Memories (ROMs) Programmable ROMs - PROMs, EPROMs and EEPROMs, Flash memories, 2764, 2864 and 6264 memory devices. Memory expansion, applications.