Topic outline

  • General

    Lecturer Dr. Inda Sukati 

    Semester  : Semester II 2013/2014

    Synopsis :

    This course is offered to students who are keen to build their career at the international arena. This course gives an understanding to students on four basic things of international marketing. First: It focuses on the scope, challenges and market opportunities that could be faced by those who become international marketers in a global environment. Second: The students will learn on the cultural environment that includes the geography and history, business practice, politics and global market legacy. Third exposes to markets and new trade divisions that could be created through surveys and reservations. Fourth is provides exposure on global marketing strategies that are being built through planning and organization by products and services, advertisement and personal promotions instead of fixing the price globally as a response to the era of challenges in the international market. 

    Creative Commons License This work, SHAF3073 GLOBAL MARKETING by Dr. Inda Sukati is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
    • Topic 1



      Marketing is an organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.  A company that engages in global marketing focuses resources on global market opportunities and threats. Successful global marketers such as Nestle, Coca-Cola, and Honda use familiar marketing mix elements – the four Ps – to create global marketing programs.

      Marketing, R&D, manufacturing, and other activities comprise a firm’s value chain; The value equation (V =B/P) expresses the relationship between values and the marketing mix.


      Global companies also maintain strategic focus while pursuing competitive advantage. The marketing mix, value chain, competitive advantage, and focus are universal in their applicability, irrespective of whether a company does business only in the home country or has a presence in many markets around the world. However, in a global industry, companies that fail to pursue global opportunities risk being pushed aside by stronger global competitors.


      A firm’s global marketing strategy (GMS) can enhance its worldwide performance. The GMS addresses several issues. First is nature of the marketing program in terms of the balance between a standardization (extension) approach to the marketing mix and a localization (adaptation) approach that is responsive to country or regional differences. Second is the concentration of marketing activities in a few countries or the dispersal of such activities across many countries. Companies that engage in global marketing can also engage in coordination of marketing activities. Finally, a firm’s GMS will address the issue of global market participation.


      The importance of global marketing today can be seen in the company rankings compiled by the Wall Street Journal, Fortune, Financial Times, and other publications. Whether ranked by revenues, market capitalization, or some other measure, most of the world’s major corporations are active regionally or globally. The size of global markets for individual industries or product categories helps explain why companies “go global”. Global markets for some product categories represent hundreds of billions of dollars in annual sales; other markets are much smaller. Whatever the size of the opportunity, successful industry competitors find that increasing revenues and profits means seeking markets outside the home country.

       Company management can be classified in terms of its orientation toward the world: ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, or geocentric. The terms reflect progressive levels of development or evolution. An ethnocentric orientation characterizes domestic and international companies; international companies pursue marketing opportunities outside the home market by extending various elements of the marketing mix. A polycentric worldview predominates at a multinational company, where the marketing mix is adapted by country managers operating autonomously. Managers at global and transnational companies are regiocentric or geocentric in their orientation and pursue both extension and adaptation strategies in global markets.

       The dynamic interplay of several driving and restraining forces shapes the importance of global marketing. Driving forces include market needs and wants, technology, transportation and communication improvements, product costs, quality, world economic trends, and recognition of opportunities to develop leverage by operating globally. Restraining forces include market differences, management myopia, organizational culture, and national controls such as nontariff barriers (NTBs). 

    • Topic 2



      The economic environment is a major determinant of global market potential and opportunity. In today’s global economy, capital movements are the driving force, production is uncoupled from employment, and capitalism has vanquished communism. Based on patterns of resource allocation and ownership, the world's economies can be categorized as market capitalism, centrally-planned capitalism, centrally-planned socialism, and market socialism. The final years of the twentieth century were marked by transitions toward market capitalism in many countries that had been centrally controlled. However, there still exists a great disparity among the nations of the world in terms of economic freedom.


      Countries can be categorized in terms of their stage of economic development: low income, lower middle income, upper middle income, and high income.  Gross domestic product (GDP) and gross national income (GNI) are commonly used measures of economic development.  The 50 poorest countries in the low-income category are sometimes referred to as least-developed countries (LDCs). Upper middle-income countries with high growth are often called newly industrializing economies (NIEs). Several of the world’s economies are notable for their fast growth; the BRICnations include Brazil, Russia, India, and China. The Group of Seven (G7), Group of Eight (G-8),  and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)represent efforts by high-income nations to promote democratic ideals and free-market policies throughout the rest of the world. Most of the world's income is located in the Triad, which is comprised of Japan, the United States, and Western Europe. Companies with global aspirations generally have operations in all three areas. Market potential for a product can be evaluated by determining product saturation levelsin light of income levels.


      A country’s balance of payments is a record of its economic transactions with the rest of the world; this record shows whether a country has a trade surplus (value of exports exceeds value of imports) or a trade deficit (value of imports exceeds value of exports). Trade figures can be further divided into merchandise trade and services trade accounts; a country can run a surplus in both accounts, a deficit in both accounts, or a combination of the two.  The U.S. merchandise trade deficit was $819 billion in 2007. However, the U.S.enjoys an annual service trade surplus. Overall, however, the United Statesis a debtor; Japanenjoys an overall trade surplus and serves as a creditor nation.


      Foreign exchange provides a means for settling accounts across borders.  The dynamics of international finance can have a significant impact on a nation’s economy as well as the fortunes of individual companies.  Currencies can be subject to devaluation or revaluation as a result of actions taken by a country’s central banker.  Currency trading by international speculators can also lead to devaluation.  When a country’s economy is strong or when demand for its goods is high, its currency tends to appreciate in value.  When currency values fluctuate, global firms face various types of economic exposure.  Firms can manage exchange rate exposure by hedging

    • Topic 3



      This chapter examines the environment for world trade, focusing on the institutions and regional cooperation agreements that affect trade patterns.


      The multilateral World Trade Organization, created in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, provides a forum for settling disputes among member nations and tries to set policy for world trade.


      The world trade environment is also characterized by preferential trade agreements among smaller numbers of countries on a regional and sub-regional basis. These agreements can be conceptualized on a continuum of increasing economic integration.


      Free trade areas such as the one created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)represent the lowest level of economic integration.


      The purpose of a free trade agreement is to eliminate tariffs and quotas. Rules of origin are used to verify the country from which goods are shipped. A customs union (e.g. Mercosur) represents a further degree of integration in the form of common external tariffs.


      In a common market such as Central American Integration System (SICA), restrictions on the movement of labor and capital are eased in an effort to further increase integration.


      An economic union, such as the European Union (EU), the highest level of economic integration is achieved by unification of economic policies and institutions. Harmonization, the coming together of varying standards and regulations, is a key characteristic of the EU.


      Other important cooperation arrangements include the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (GCC). In Africa, the two main cooperation agreements are the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and the South African Development Community (SADC).

    • Topic 4



      Culture, a society’s “programming of the mind,” has both a pervasive and changing influence on each national market environment. Global marketers must recognize the influence of culture and be prepared to either respond to it or change it. Human behavior is a function of a person’s own unique personality and that person’s interaction with the collective forces of the particular society and culture in which he or she has lived. In particular, attitudes, values, and beliefs can vary significantly from country to country.


      Also, differences pertaining to religion, aesthetics, dietary customs, and language and communication can affect local reaction to brands or products as well as the ability of company personnel to function effectively in different cultures. A number of concepts and theoretical frameworks provide insights into these and other cultural issues.


      Cultures can be classified as high- or low-context; communication and negotiation styles can differ from country to country. Hofstede’s social value typology sheds light on national cultures in terms of power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinityvs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-versus short-term orientation.  By understanding the self-reference criterion, global marketers can overcome the unconscious tendency for perceptual blockage and distortion.


      Rogers’ classic study on the diffusion of innovations helps explain how products are adopted over time by different adopter categories. The adoption process that consumer go through can be divided into multi-stage hierarchy of effects.  Rogers’ findings concerning the characteristics of innovations can also help marketers successfully launch new products in global markets. Recent research has suggested that Asian adopter categories differ from the Western model. An awareness of environmental sensitivity can help marketers determine whether consumer and industry products must be adapted to the needs of different markets. 
    • Topic 5


      The political environment of global marketing is the set of governmental institutions, political parties, and organizations that are the expression of the people in the nations of the world. In particular, anyone engaged in global marketing should have an overall understanding of the importance of sovereignty to national governments. The political environment varies from country to country, and political riskassessment is crucial. It is also important to understand a particular government’s actions with respect to taxes and seizure of assets. Historically, the latter have taken the form ofexpropriation, confiscation, and nationalization.


      The legal environment consists of laws, courts, attorneys, legal customs, and practices. International law is comprised of the rules and principles that nation-states consider binding upon themselves.  The countries of the world can be broadly categorized in terms of common-law legal systems or civil-law legal system. The United States and Canada and many former British colonies are common law countries; most other countries are civil-law. A third system, Islamic law, predominates in the Middle East. Some of the most important legal issues pertain to jurisdiction, antitrust, and licensing. In addition, bribery is pervasive in many parts of the world; the Foreign Corrupt Practice Act (FCPA) applies to American companies operating abroad. Intellectual property protection is another critical issue.  Counterfeiting is a major problem in global marketing; it often involves infringement of a company’s copyright or trademark ownership. When legal conflicts arise, companies can pursue the matter in court or use arbitration.


      The regulatory environment consists of agencies, both governmental and non-governmental, that enforce laws or set guidelines for conducting business. Global marketing activities can be affected by a number of international or regional economic organizations; in Europe, for example, the European Union makes laws governing member states. The World Trade Organization will have a broad impact on global marketing activities in the years to come. Although all three environments are complex, astute marketers plan ahead to avoid situations that might result in conflict, misunderstanding, or outright violation of national laws. 

    • Topic 6



      Information is one of the most basic ingredients of a successful marketing strategy. A company's management information system and intranet provides decision makers with a continuous flow of information. Information technology is profoundly affecting global marketing activities by allowing managers to access and manipulate data to assist in decision making. Electronic data interchange, electronic point of sale data, efficient consumer response, customer relationship management, and data warehouses are some of the new tools and techniques available. The global marketer must scan the world for information about opportunities and threats and make information available via a management information system


      Formal market research– the project-specific, systematic gathering of data-is often required before marketers make key decisions. Global market research links customers and marketers through information gathered on a global scale.  The research process begins when marketers define the problem and set research objectives; this step may entail assessing whether a particular market should be classified as latent or incipient. A research plan specifies the relative amounts of qualitative and quantitative information desired. Information is collected using either primary or secondary datasources. In today’s wired world, the Internet has taken its place alongside more traditional channels as an important secondary information source. In some instances, the cost of collecting primary data may outweigh the potential benefits. Secondary sources are especially useful for researching a market that is too small to justify a large commitment of time and money.


      If collection of primary data can be justified on a cost-benefit basis, research can be conducted via survey research, personal interviews, consumer panels, observation, and focus groups. Before collecting data, researchers must determine whether a probability sample is required. In global marketing, careful attention must be paid to issues such as eliminating cultural bias in research, accurately translating surveys, and ensuring data comparability in different markets. A number of techniques are available for analyzing survey data, including factor analysis, cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling (MDS), and conjoint analysis. Research findings and recommendations must be presented clearly. A final issue is how much control headquarters will have over research and the overall management of the organization's information system. To ensure comparability of data, the researcher should utilize both emic and etic approaches
    • Topic 7


      The global environment must be analyzed before a company pursues expansion into new geographic markets. Through global market segmentation, a company can identify and group customers or countries according to common needs and wants. Demographic segmentation can be based on country income and population, age, ethnic heritage, or other variables. Psychographic segmentationgroups people according to attitudes, interests, opinions, and lifestyles. Behavioral segmentation utilizes user status and usage rate as segmentation variables. Benefits segmentation is based on the benefit buyers seek.  Global teens and global elites are two examples of global market segments.


      After marketers have identified segments, the next step is targeting: The identified groups are evaluated and compared, and one or more segments with the greatest potential is selected from them. The groups are evaluated on the basis of several factors, including segment size and growth potential, competition, and compatibility and feasibility. Target market assessment also entails a thorough understanding of the product-marketin question and determining marketing model drivers and enabling conditions in the countries under study. The timing of market entry should take into account whether a first-mover advantage is likely to be gained. After evaluating the identified segments, marketers must decide on an appropriate targeting strategy. The three basic categories of global target marketing strategies are standardized global marketing, niche marketing, and differentiated multisegment marketing.


      Positioning a product or brand to differentiate it in the minds of target customers can be accomplished in various ways: positioning by attribute or benefit, positioning by quality/price, positioning by use or user, and positioning by competition. In global marketing global consumer culture positioning (GCCP), foreign consumer culture positioning (FCCP), and local consumer culture positioning (LCCP) are additional strategic options.

    • Topic 8



      A company’s first business dealings outside the home country often take the form of exporting or importing. Companies should recognize the difference between export marketing and export selling. By attending trade shows and participating in trade missions, company personnel can learn a great deal about new markets.


      Governments use a variety of programs to support exports, including tax incentives, subsidies, and export assistance. Governments also discourage imports with a combination of tariffs and nontariff barriers. A quota is one example of a nontariff barrier. Export-related policy issues include the status of foreign sales corporations (FSCs) in the United States, Europe’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and

      subsidies. Governments establish free trade zones and special economic zones to encourage investment.


      The Harmonized Tariff System (HTS) has been adopted by most countries that are

      actively involved in export-import trade. Single-column tariffs are the simplest; two-column tariffs include special rates such as those available to countries with normal trade relations (NTR) status. Governments can also impose special types of duties. These include antidumping duties imposed on products whose prices government officials deem too low and countervailing duties to offset government subsidies.


      Key participants in the export-import process include foreign purchasing agents, export

      brokers, export merchants, export management companies, manufacturers’ export agents, export distributors, export commission representatives, cooperative exporters, and freight forwarders. A number of export-import payment methods are available. A transaction begins with the issue of a pro forma invoice or some other formal document. A basic payment instrument is the letter of credit (L/C) that assures payment from the buyer’s bank. Sales may also be made using a bill of exchange (draft), cash in advance, sales on open account, or a consignment agreement.

      Exporting and importing is directly related to management’s sourcing decisions. Concern is mounting in developed countries about job losses linked to outsourcing jobs, both skilled and unskilled, to low-wage countries. A number of factors determine whether a company makes or buys the products it markets as well as where it makes or buys it.

    • Topic 9



      Companies that wish to move beyond exporting and importing can avail themselves of a wide range of alternative market entry strategies. Each alternative has distinct advantages and disadvantages associated with it; the alternatives can be ranked on a continuum representing increasing levels of investment, commitment, and risk. Licensingcan generate revenue flow with little new investment; it can be a good choice for a company that possesses advanced technology, a strong brand image, or valuable intellectual property. Contract manufacturing and franchisingare two specialized forms of licensing that are widely used in global marketing.


      A higher level of involvement outside the home country may involve foreign direct investment. This can take many forms.Joint ventures offer two or more companies the opportunity to share risk and combine value chain strengths. Companies considering joint ventures must plan carefully and communicate with partners to avoid “divorce.” Foreign direct investment can also be used to establish company operations outside the home country through greenfield investment, acquisition of an minority or majority equity stake in a foreign business, or taking full ownership of an existing business entity through merger or outright acquisition.


      Cooperative alliances known as strategic alliances, strategic international alliances, and global strategic partnerships (GSPs)represent an important market entry strategy in the twenty-first century. GSPs are ambitious, reciprocal, cross-border alliances that may involve business partners in a number of different country markets. GSPs are particularly well suited to emerging markets in Central and Eastern Europe, Asia, and Latin America. Western businesspeople should also be aware of two special forms of cooperation found in Asia, namely Japan’s keiretsu and South Korea’s chaebol.


      To assist managers in thinking through the various alternatives, market expansion strategies can be represented in matrix form: country and market concentration, country concentration and market diversification, country diversification and market concentration, and country and market diversification. The preferred expansion strategy will be a reflection of a company’s stage of development (i.e. whether it is international, multinational, global, or transnational). The Stage 5 transnational combines the strengths of these three stages into an integrated network to leverage worldwide learning. 

    • Topic 10



      The product is the most important element of a company’s marketing program. Global marketers face the challenge of formulating coherent product and brand strategies on a worldwide basis. A product can be viewed as a collection of tangible and intangible attributes that collectively provide benefits to a buyer or user. A brand is a complex bundle of images and experiences in the mind of the customer. In most countries, local brands compete with international brands and global brands. A local product is available in a single country; a global product meets the wants and needs of a global market.


      A global brand has the same name and a similar image and positioning in most parts of the world. Many global companies leverage favorable brand images and high brand equity by employing combination (tiered) branding, cobranding, and brand extension strategies. Companies can create strong brands in all markets through global brand leadership. Maslow’s hierarchy is a needs-based framework that offers a way of understanding opportunities to develop local and global products in different parts of the world. Some products and brands benefit from the country-of-origin effect. Product decisions must also address packaging issues such as labeling and aesthetics. Also, express warranty policies must be appropriate for each country market.


      Product and communications strategies can be viewed within a framework that allows for combinations of three strategies: extension strategy, adaptation strategy, and creation strategy. Five strategic alternatives are open to companies pursuing geographic expansion: product-communication extension; product extension-communication adaptation; product adaptation-communication extension; product-communication adaptation; and product invention (innovation). The strategic alternative(s) that a particular company chooses will depend on the product and the need it serves, customer preferences and purchasing power, and the costs of adaptation versus standardization. Product transformation occurs when a product that has been introduced into new country markets serves a different function or is used differently than originally intended. When choosing a strategy, management should consciously strive to avoid the “not invented here” syndrome.

      Global competition has put pressure on companies to excel at developing standardized product platforms that can serve as a foundation for cost-efficient adaptation. New products can be classified as discontinuous, dynamically continuous, or continuous innovations. A successful product launch requires an understanding of how markets develop: sequentially over time or simultaneously. Today, many new products are launched in multiple national markets as product development cycles shorten and product development costs soar.

    • Topic 11



      Pricing decisions are a critical element of the marketing mix that must reflect costs, competitive factors, and customer perceptions regarding value of the product. In a true global market, the law of one price would prevail. Pricing strategies include market skimming, market penetration, and market holding. Novice exporters frequently use cost-plus pricing. International terms of a sale such as ex-works, F.A.S., F.O.B., and C.I.F. are known as Incoterms and specify which party to a transaction is responsible for covering various costs. These and other costs lead to export price escalation, the accumulation of costs that occurs when products are shipped from one country to another.

      Expectations regarding currency fluctuations, inflation, government controls, and the competitive situation must also be factored into pricing decisions. The introduction of the euro has impacted price strategies in the EU because of improved price transparency. Global companies can maintain competitive prices in world markets by shifting production sources as business conditions change. Overall, a company’s pricing policies can be categorized as ethnocentric, polycentric, or geocentric.


      Several additional pricing issues are related to global marketing. The issue of gray market goods arises because price variations between different countries lead to parallel imports. Dumping is another contentious issue that can result in strained relations between trading partners. Price fixing among companies is anticompetitive and illegal.

      Transfer pricing is an issue because of the sheer monetary volume of intra-corporate sales and because country governments are anxious to generate as much tax revenue as possible. Various forms of countertrade play an important role in today’s global environment. Barter, counterpurchase, offset, compensation trading, and switch trading are the main countertrade options. 

    • Topic 12



      A channel of distribution is the network of agencies and institutions that links producers with users. Physical distribution is the movement of goods through channels. Business –to-consumer marketing uses consumer channels; business-to-business marketing employs industrial channels to deliver products to manufacturers or other types of organizations. Peer-to-peer marketing via the Internet is another channel. Distributors and agents are key intermediaries in both channel types.  Channel decisions are difficult to manage globally because of the variation in channel structures from country to country. Marketing channels can create place utility, time utility, form utility, and information utility for buyers. The characteristics of customers, products, middlemen, and environment all affect channel design and strategy.


      Consumer channels may be relatively direct, utilizing direct mail or door-to-door selling, as well as manufacturer-owned stores. A combination of manufacturers' sales force, agents-brokers, and wholesalers may also be used.


      Global retailing is a growing trend as successful retailers expand around the world in support of growth objectives. Retail operations takes many different forms, including department stores, specialty retailers, supermarkets, convenience stores, discount stores, warehouse clubs, hypermarkets, supercenters, category killers, and outlet malls. Selection, price, store location, and customer service are a few of the competencies that can be used strategically to enter a new market. It is possible to classify retailers in a matrix that distinguishes companies offering few product categories with an own-label focus; many categories-own-label focus; few categories-manufacturer-brand focus; and many categories-manufacturer-brand focus. Global retail expansion can be achieved via organic growth, franchising, acquisition, and joint venture.


      Transportation and physical distribution issues are critically important in a company’s value chain because of the geographical distances involved in sourcing products and serving customers in different parts of the world. A company’s supply chain includes all the firms that perform support activities such as generating raw materials or fabricating components. Logistics and logistics management integrate the activities of all companies in a firm’s value chain to ensure an efficient flow of goods through the supply chain. Important activities include order processing, warehousing, and inventory management. To cut costs and improve efficiency, many companies are reconfiguring their supply chains by outsourcing some or all of these activities. Six transportation modes—air, truck, water, rail, pipeline, and Internet—are widely used in global distribution. Containerization was a key innovation in physical distribution that facilitates intermodal transportation.


    • Topic 13



      Marketing communications—the promotion P of the marketing mix—includes advertising, public relations, sales promotion, and personal selling. When a company embraces integrated marketing communications (IMC), it recognizes that the various elements of a company's communication strategy must be carefully coordinated. Advertising is a sponsored , paid message that is communicated through nonpersonal channels. Global advertising consists of the same advertising appeals, messages, artwork, and copy in campaigns around the world. The effort required to create a global campaign forces a company to determine whether or not a global market exists for its product. The trade-off between standardized and adapted advertising is often accomplished by means of pattern advertising, which can be used to create localized global advertising. Many advertising agencies are part of larger advertising organizations. Advertisers may place a single global agency in charge of worldwide advertising; it is also possible to use one or more agencies on a regional or local basis.


      The starting point in ad development is the creative strategy, a statement of what the message will say. The people who create ads often seek a big idea that can serve as the basis for memorable, effective messages. The advertising appeal is the communication approach—rational or emotional—that best relates to buyer motives. Rational appeals speak to the mind: emotional appeals speak to the heart. The selling proposition is the promise that captures the reason for buying the product. The creative execution is the way an appeal or proposition is presented. Art direction and copy must be created with cultural considerations in mind. Perceptions of humor, male-female relationships, and sexual imagery vary in different parts of the world. Media availability varies considerably from country to country. When selecting media, marketers are sometimes as constrained by laws and regulations as by literacy rates.


      A company utilizes public relations (PR) to foster goodwill and understanding among constituents both inside and outside the company. In particular, the PR department attempts to generate favorable publicity about the company and its products and brands. The PR department must also manage corporate communications when responding to negative publicity. The most important PR tools are press releases, media kits, interviews, and tours. Many global companies make use of various types of corporate advertising, including image advertising and advocacy advertising. Public relations is also responsible for providing accurate, timely information, especially in the event of a crisis.

    • Topic 14



      Sales promotion is any paid, short-term communication program that adds tangible value to a product or brand. Consumer sales promotionsare targeted at ultimate consumers; trade sales promotions are used in business-to-business marketing. Sampling gives prospective customers a chance to try a product or service at no cost. A coupon is a certificate that entitles the bearer to a price reduction or other value-enhancing consideration when purchasing a product or service.


      Personal selling is face-to-face communication between a prospective buyer and a company representative. The Strategic/Consultative Selling Model that is widely used in the United Statesis also being utilized worldwide. The model's five strategic steps call for developing a personal selling philosophy, a relationship strategy, a product strategy, a customer strategy, and a presentation strategy. The six steps in the presentation plan are: approach; presentation; demonstration; negotiation; close; and servicing the sale. Successful global selling may require adaptation of one or more steps in the presentation plan. An additional consideration in global selling is the composition of the sales force, which may include expatriates, host country natives, or sales agents.


      Several others forms of communication can be used in global marketing. These include direct marketing, a measurable system that uses one or more media to start or complete a sale. One-to-one marketing is an updated approach to direct marketing that calls for treating each customer in a distinct way based on his or her previous purchase history or past interactions with the company. Direct mail, catalogs, infomercials, teleshopping, and interactive television are some of the direct marketing tools that have been successfully used on a global basis. Global marketers frequently try to place their products in blockbuster movies that will reach global audiences. Sponsorshipsand product placement are also becoming vital communication tools that can be used on a global basis.

    • Topic 15



      The digital revolution has created a global electronic marketplace. The revolution has gained momentum over the course of 70-plus years, during which time technological breakthroughs included the digital mainframe computer; the transistor; the integrated circuit; the personal computer; the spreadsheet, the PC operating system; and the Internet, which originated as an initiative of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). Three key innovations by Tim Berners-Lee, the URL, http, and html, led to the creation in the early 1990s of the World Wide Web.


      The digital revolution has resulted in a process known as convergence, meaning that previously separate industries and markets are coming together. In this environment, the innovator’s dilemma means that company management must decide whether to invest in current technologies or try to develop new technologies. Although leading firms in an industry often develop sustaining technologies that result in improved product performance, the revolution has also unleashed a wave of disruptive technologies that are creating new markets and reshaping industries and value networks.


      E-commerceis growing in importance for both consumer and industrial goods marketers. Generally, commercial Web sites can have a domestic or global focus; in addition, they can be classified as promotion sites, content sites, and transaction sites. . Global marketers must take care when designing Web sites. Country-specific domain names must be registered and local-language sites developed. In addition to addressing issues of technology and functionality, content must reflect local culture, customs, and aesthetic preferences. Cybersquatting can hinder a company’s effort to register its corporate name as an Internet destination.


      The Internet is a powerful tool for advertisers; click-through rates are one measure of effectiveness. Another trend is paid search advertising. New products and services spawned by the digital revolution include: broadband, which permits transmission of streaming media over the Internet; mobile commerce (m-commerce), which is made possible by Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, WiMax, and other forms of wireless connectivity; telematics, and global positioning systems (GPS); and short message service (SMS).  Smart cell phones are creating new markets for mobile music downloads, including ringtones, truetones, and full-track music files; they can also be used for mobile gaming and Internet phone service using VoIP.